American Cartographic Association. 1986. Which Map is Best? Projections for World Maps. Falls Church, VA.: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 14 pp. [Special Publication No. 1.]

American Cartographic Association. 1988.Choosing a World Map -- Attributes, Distortions, Classes, Aspects. Falls Church, VA.: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 15 pp. [Special Publication No. 2.]

Canters, Frank, and Hugo Decleir. 1989. The World in Perspective -- A Directory of World Map Projections. Chichester, Eng.: John Wiley and Sons. 181 pp. [Descriptions of 50 world map projections.]

Chamberlin, Wellman. 1947. The Round Earth on Flat Paper. Washington: National Geographic Society. 126 pp. [Popular descriptions of map projections.]

Deetz, Charles H., and Oscar S. Adams. 1944. Elements of Map Projection With Applications to Map and Chart Construction. Washington: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publication No. 68, 5th ed. 226 pp. [Classic U.S. government publication prior to computer age.]

Espenshade, Edward B., Jr., and Joel L. Morrison, editors. 1986. Goode's World Atlas, 17th ed. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 367 pp.

Fisher, Irving, and O.M. Miller. 1944. World Maps and Globes. New York: Essential Books, 168 pp.

Harley, J. Brian, and David Woodward, editors. 1987. The History of Cartography, vol. l. Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 599 pp.

Hsu, Mei-Ling. 1981. "The Role of Projections in Modern Map Design." Cartographica 18, no. 2: 151-186.

Kellaway, George P. 1949. Map Projections, 2nd ed. London Methuen & Co., Ltd.

Lee, L.P. 1944. "The Nomenclature and Classification of Map Projections." Empire Survey Review 7, no. 51: 190-200.

McDonnell, Porter W., Jr. 1979. Introduction to Map Projections. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 174 pp.

Maling, Derek H. 1973. Coordinate Systems and Map Projections. London: George Philip. 255 pp. [Mathematical analysis of major projections.]

Muehrcke, Phillip C. 1986. Map Use: Reading, Analysis, and Interpretation, 2nd ed. Madison, Wis.: JP Publications.

Robinson, Arthur H., Randall D. Sale, Joel L. Morrison, and Phillip C. Muehrcke. 1984. Elements of Cartography, 5th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. [Introductory discussion of map projections, pp. 76-105.]

Shirley, Rodney W. 1983. The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps 1472-1700. London: Holland Press.

Snyder, John P. 1987. Map Projections -- A Working Manual. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1395. 383 pp. [Detailed description of 32 projections.]

Snyder, John P., and Harry Steward, editors. 1988. Bibliography of Map Projections. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1856. 110 pp. [2551 entries.]

Snyder, John P., and Philip M. Voxland. 1989. An Album of Map Projections. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1453. 249 pp. [Brief descriptions of 90 projections.]

Steers, James A. 1970. An Introduction to the Study of Map Projections, 15th ed. 294 pp. [Graphical construction described for many projections.]

Wallis, Helen M., and Arthur H. Robinson, editors. 1987. Cartographical Innovations. An International Handbook of Mapping Terms to 1900. Tring, Eng.: Map Collector Publications, Ltd., for International Cartographic Association.


1. As the Earth Turns

American Cartographic Association. 1988. Choosing a World Map, 10-11.*

Espenshade, Goode's Atlas, xvi (Time Zones).*

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 33-34 (Gall Stereographic), 54-57 (Mollweide), 60-61 (Eckert IV).*

2. Interrupting the World Map

Fisher and Miller, World Maps, 78-91.*

Cahill, B.J.S. 1929. "Projections for World Maps." Monthly Weather Review 57, no. 4: 128-133 [Butterfly Map.]

Dahlberg, Richard E. 1962. "Evolution of Interrupted Map Projections." International Yearbook of Cartography 2: 36-54. [Detailed history.]

Fuller, Buckminster. 1943. "Dymaxion World." Life 14 (9), Mar. 1: 41. [Cutout world on cuboctahedron.]

3. Shaping the World Map

Cartographic Association, Choosing a World Map, 2, 8-9.*

Boggs, S. Whittemore. 1946. "Cartohypnosis." Department of State Bulletin, Dec. 12, 1946.

Frye, Alex E. 1894. The Child and Nature. Boston: Ginn and Co., 11-13.

Goode, J. Paul. 1917. "The world on the sinusoidal projection (interrupted)." Goode's Series of Base Maps, no. 101S.

Marvin C. F., et al. 1929. "Projections for world maps." Monthly Weather Review 57, no. 4: 127-136.

Raisz, Erwin. 1944. "Orthoapsidal World Maps." Geographical Review 33, no. 1: 132-134. [Armadillo and Hyperboloid projections.]

Spilhaus, Athelstan. 1979. "To see the oceans, slice up the land." Smithsonian 10, no. 8: 116-127.

Spilhaus, Athelstan. 1984. "Plate tectonics in geoforms and jigsaws." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 128, no. 3: 257-269.

Spilhaus, Athelstan, and John P. Snyder. 1990. "World maps with natural boundaries." Cartography and Geographic Information Systems.

4. Projecting the Hemisphere

Boggs, S. Whittemore. 1945. "'This Hemisphere.'" Journal of Geography 44, no. 9: 344-345.

Galtung, Johan. 1989.

Peace and Development in the Pacific Hemisphere. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Institute for Peace (dist. by University of Hawaii Press).

The Ginn World Atlas. 1963. Cartography by Richard Edes Harrison. Boston: Ginn and Co.

Shirley, Mapping.*

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 124-127 (Orthographic), 132-135 (Azimuthal Equidistant), 136-139 (Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area), 176 (Globular).*

5. Centering a Map on the Point of Interest

American Cartographic Association, Choosing a World Map, 10-11.*

Briesemeister, William A. 1953. "A New Oblique Equal-Area Projection." Geographical Review 43, no. 2: 260-261.

6. Enlarging the Heart of the Map

Hägerstrand, Torsten, 1957. "Migration and Area," in Migration in Sweden. Lund, Sweden: Royal University of Lund, Dept. of Geography, Lund Studies in Geography, series B, Human Geography, no. 13: 27-158, esp. 73. [Logarithmic Azimuthal projection.]

Harley and Woodward, History, 286-370 (Mappaemundi).*

Snyder, John P. 1987. "'Magnifying-Glass' Azimuthal Map Projections." American Cartographer 14, no. 1: 61-68.

7. Viewing the Earth from Space

Deakin, R.E. 1990. "The 'Tilted Camera' Perspective Projection of the Earth." Cartographic Journal 27, no. 7-14.

Harrison Richard Edes. 1944. Look at the World; The Fortune Atlas for World Strategy, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Snyder, Working Manual, 169-181.*

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 128-131, 172-173.*

8. Showing Routes for Globe Circlers

Canters, Frank. 1989. "New Projections for World Maps/A Quantitative-Perceptive Approach." Cartographica 26, no. 2: 53-71.

Raisz, Erwin. 1944. "Orthoapsidal World Maps." Geographical Review 33, no. 1: 132-134. [Armadillo projection.]

Robinson, Arthur H. 1974. "A New Map Projection: Its Development and Characteristics." International Yearbook of Cartography 14: 145-155. [Robinson projection.]

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 35-36 (Miller Cylindrical), 82-83 (Robinson), 136-139 (Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area), 213-214 (Satellite -Tracking).*

9. Showing the Shortest Routes Great Circles

Gilmartin, Patricia. 1985. "The Design of Journalistic Maps/Purposes, Parameters and Prospects." Cartographica 22, no. 4: 1-18. [Describes how journalistic misuse of projections can give false impressions.]

Snyder, and Voxland, Album, 10-11 (Mercator), 14-15 (Oblique Mercator), 22-23 (Plate Carrée) 28-29 (Oblique Plate Carrée), 116-119 (Gnomonic), 132-135 (Azimuthal Equidistant).*

10. Straightening a Rhumb

Wallis and Robinson, Innovations, 12-17 (Portolan Chart), 185 (Loxodrome), 201-202 (Rhumb Line).*

Harley and Woodward, History, 371-463 (Portolan Charts).*

11. Measuring Directions and Distances for the Shortest Routes

Botley, F. V. 1951. "A New Use for the Plate Carrée Projection." Geographical Review 41, no. 4: 640-644.

Close, Charles F. 1934. "A Doubly Equidistant Projection of the Sphere." Geographical Journal 83, no. 2: 144-145.

Hinks, Arthur R. 1929. "A Retro-Azimuthal Equidistant Projection of the Whole Sphere." Geographical Journal 73, no. 3: 245-247.

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 22-23 (Plate Carrée), 28-29 (Oblique Plate Carrée), 114-115 (Werner), 132-135 (Azimuthal Equidistant), 144-145 (Two-Point Azimuthal), 146-147 (Two-Point Equidistant).*

12. Showing Ranges and Rings of Activity

Robinson, Arthur H. 1963. "The Circle of Best Fit." Geographical Review 53, no. 1: 139-141. [Plotting small circles on the Sterographic projection.]

Snyder and Voxland, Album, 50-51 (Eckert IV), 120-123 (Stereographic), 132-135 (Azimuthal Equidistant).*

* See General listing above for complete citation.

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